In latest many years, he continued,
town has flourished, in order that now central New York and San Francisco are the costliest locations within the U.S. to dwell. I fear that this has ended for 2 causes. First, the pandemic has made us far more conscious of the necessity to scale back density — significantly indoor density. Which means avoiding the subway, elevators, shared workplaces, and communal dwelling. Second, working from house is right here to remain, and with it, the necessity to dwell near the workplace will diminish. I doubt that many corporations will permit folks to make money working from home for 5 days per week, however two or three days per week will probably be frequent. And many people will surprise: if we must be within the workplace for less than half the week, why not dwell additional out, the place housing is cheaper?
In an April 2021 paper, “Why Working From Residence Will Stick,” Bloom and two colleagues, Jose Maria Barrero, a professor at Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, and Steven J. Davis, a professor on the College of Chicago, argue that the Covid pandemic has revolutionized work, with distant staff quadrupling from roughly 5 % to roughly 20 % of the work power. The results will probably be felt all over the place, particularly in massive cities, they write: “The shift to WFH will even have extremely uneven geographic results, diminishing the fortunes of cities like San Francisco with excessive charges of inward commuting.” The shift to working from residence “will decrease expenditures on meals, leisure, private companies, and purchasing in main cities by 5 to 10 % of prepandemic general spending.”
In an in depth set of analyses for New York Metropolis and San Francisco, with San Francisco knowledge showing in parentheses, Bloom and his colleagues report from a collection of month-to-month surveys they carried out that the result’s a 13 % drop in client spending in New York and 4.6 % drop in San Francisco.
The web advantages of the shift will, in flip, “circulation primarily to the extremely educated and properly paid,” in accordance with the 4 authors, and “will yield bigger advantages (as a % of earnings) for males, the college-educated, these with kids and individuals with larger earnings.” The earnings relationship, they word, “could be very steep.”
The very thought of cities as locations the place collective life is prioritized, the place folks come collectively in shared areas like parks, playgrounds, sidewalks, entrance stoops, subways, cafes, stadiums and theaters, begins to interrupt down when public areas carry the specter of violence.
There’s, Sharkey continued,
robust proof that rising violence contributed to out-migration from central cities within the period of maximum city violence from the late Nineteen Sixties by way of the Eighties; and, alternatively, that the decline in violence from the early Nineties to the mid-2010s introduced folks again into central cities.
If violence retains rising (in New York, for instance, shootings rose 95 % over 2020) and if authorities fails to intervene, Sharkey warned, “those that have the sources to go away central cities will accomplish that.”
What can we anticipate?
The shortage of consensus on this query is mirrored in particular person essays that Florida and Kotkin wrote.
Florida, ever the optimist, wrote in June 2020:
Not solely are cities on the upswing, we’re within the early levels of a brand new wave of city coverage innovation, which is going on from the underside up in cities, our true laboratories of democracy. Even earlier than the present crises, cities had been starting to deal with the mounting challenges of racial and sophistication division, inequality, police reform and worsening housing burdens.
Kotkin, ever the pessimist, wrote in March 2021:
As we speak’s city promise is, nevertheless, vastly totally different — not solely in New York, however San Francisco and Los Angeles, London and Paris. Not cities of aspiration, they’re more and more outlined by an nearly feudal hierarchy: the wealthy dwell properly, protected by non-public safety and served by native espresso outlets and stylish golf equipment. In the meantime, the working class struggles to pay hire, possesses no demonstrable path to a greater life and, because of this, typically migrates elsewhere. Crime charges are spiking and homelessness, as soon as an exception, is more and more widespread. These very streets as soon as stated to be “paved with gold” are actually full of discarded needles, excrement and graffiti.
Take your decide.
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